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copyleft - Luis Javier Tarrío

A vueltas con Coriolis

Cuando comencé en el mundo del bitacoreo mis primeros escritos estuvieron dedicados al movimiento de precesión (las entradas son esta y esta). Este movimiento no es tan difícil de encontrar en el universo, de hecho, tenemos un buen ejemplo en el museo de la ciencia más cercano.


En 1851 Foucault ideó el péndulo que ahora lleva su nombre, montándolo en el Panteón de París. Este péndulo tiene una gran masa en su extremo y está colgado del techo mediante una cuerda muy larga. Con estas condiciones el péndulo tarda bastante en detenerse (ya que sólo lo frena la fricción con el aire).

En el suelo bajo el péndulo había arena y en el peso una escobilla. Cual sería la sorpresa de la gente al ver que el péndulo estaba girando y la escobilla iba barriendo la arena. Pero Foucoult sabía a qué se debía esto.

Los péndulos son muy tercos y no les gusta cambiar el plano en el cual están oscilando, así que ese movimiento de precesión se debe a que la Tierra está girando sobre si misma. Si Foucault o cualquier otro francés de 1851 hubiese estado "quieto" en el espacio (y esto de quieto es muy relativo) con un potente instrumento que le permitiese ver siempre el interior del Panteón hubiese comprobado que el plano del péndulo era siempre el mismo.

Cualquier persona que se estudie la carrera de física sabría estudiar el sistema que explica este movimiento, o por lo menos eso se sospecha, porque algunos datos tomados durante eclipses dicen que hay más factores, claro que otros datos dicen que de eso nada.

Por lo tanto vemos que, debido a la rotación de la Tierra, el péndulo precesa. El motivo por el que este giro existe suele denominarse fuerza de Coriolis. Esta fuerza causa que si lanzas algo en un plano horizontal (paralelo al suelo) este se va a desviar a la derecha en el hemisferio norte, en el hemisferio sur se desvía hacia la izquierda, y esta desviación es mayor cuanto mayor velocidad lleve el objeto lanzado. Claro que para tirar piedras o simplemente para andar este efecto es imperceptible, pero cuando se trata de lanzar tremendos proyectiles con fines bélicos es conveniente tenerlos en cuenta.

Por ejemplo, en la guerra de las Malvinas los artilleros británicos tenían perfectamente estudiado este efecto, y sabían que tenían que apuntar unas cincuenta yardas desviados para no fallar el blanco, pero al lanzar fallaban por el doble de esa distancia, no habían tenido en cuenta que en el hemisferio sur la fuerza de Coriolis va hacia el lado contrario.


Este efecto también influye en los flujos de aire que van de las altas a las bajas presiones y es una de las razones por las que las borrascas giran en sentido antihorario en el hemisferio oeste y en sentido horario en el hemisferio sur. También se suele decir que este efecto hace que los remolinos en el agua (y el agua del retrete) giren en un sentido u otro, pero en este caso la fuerza de coriolis es mucho menor que otros factores, por lo que en realidad los remolinos se mueven en ambas direcciones.

2003-06-17 02:50 | 45 Comentarios | Esta historia

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Comentarios

1
De: Ctugha Fecha: 2003-06-17 03:24

Qué chulo lo de los proyectiles... afortunadamente en Star Wars no usan "proyectiles", porque con tanto planeta distinto...



2
De: El GNUdista Fecha: 2003-06-17 03:56

y esta desviación es mayor cuanto mayor velocidad lleve el objeto lanzado

Pues no lo entiendo, suponía que cuanto menor es la velocidad, mayor sería el efecto.

Si lanzo un proyectil a 10km/h y tiene que llegar en línea recta a 100 km, la desviación será ostensible, ya que la tierra se ha movido 10 horas, a saber donde acabaría!

Pero si lo lanzo a 100 km/h este apenas se desviaría 15º, y si lo lanzo a 1000 km/h la cosa pasaría a ser poca cosa.

Pero claro, podría no haber entendido el efecto de coriolis, ¿un poquito de luz?



3
De: Jaio la espía Fecha: 2003-06-17 08:09

Y como eso pasa con los desagües... sucede con las desembocaduras de los ríos.

Así, los ríos que desembocan hacia el Norte tienen su parte más hondable a la izquierda y forman playazos a su derecha, donde se depositan las arenas, como en el puerto de Bilbao, por eso, para encauzar la desembocadura y evitar los "churros" y la barra de arenas movedizas, Churruca contruyó el Muelle de Hierro con una ligera curva hacia la derecha, para aprovechar el efecto Coriolis.
(Jaio dixit)



4
De: Chewie Fecha: 2003-06-18 00:53

No hace falta ir a un museo de la ciencia para observar la precesión, o incluso la nutación. Sólo hay que lanzar una peonza y observar su baile :)



5
De: ljtarrio Fecha: 2003-06-18 01:23

Hombre gnudista... si tu argumento fuese correcto dependería de la dirección a la que lo lanzases, si es a favor de la rotación del planeta o no... pero no, se ve claramente que la fuerza depende directamente de la frecuencia de rotación y de la velocidad del objeto.

Chewie, eso tú que sabes lanzar peonzas ;D Aunque tienes razón, trompos y giroscopios son también un buen ejemplo de estas cosas.



6
De: El GNUdista Fecha: 2003-06-19 04:41

Estoy buscando por la internete y las páginas que supongo serias, como esta se acerca más a mi imagen del efecto del coriolis ese.

Voy a seguir buscando, el tema es interesante :)



7
De: Vendell Fecha: 2003-06-19 05:57

Ni museo de ciencia ni peonza. Cojan un hilo, átenle un peso y háganlo oscilar. Verán que aunque hagan girar el punto de apoyo el plano de oscilación se mantiene constante.



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